THE BLACK-WHITE ACHIEVEMENT GA
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- The Black-White achievement gap : why closing it is the greatest civil rights issue of our time.
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- Achievement Gap: Public Doesn't Blame Schools?
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The term achievement gap is used to describe the disparities in educational outcomes between students of differing demographic characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, nationality, socio-economic status, and immigration status. For the purposes of this entry, the scope of the achievement gap is limited to K—12 students in the United States.
The achievement gap is a phenomenon of averages. The persistence of the gap between ethnic groups does not imply that all students achieve at the same level as others CQ Press Your definitive resource for politics, policy and people.
Bridging the achievement gap
Remember me? In addition to providing health services and two meals a day to its Head Start recipients, it provides outreach to the parents. She also shares his reform strategy. Supporters of the status quo are hard-pressed, however, to provide evidence that Head Start produces results.
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This lack of evidence motivates reformers to seek a better solution. Many states have implemented pre-kindergarten programs that have shown better results than Head Start. Standing in the way of any reform or demonstration program is politics, according to Douglas Besharov [pictured] of the American Enterprise Institute. Today, Head Start faces much more competition than in the past. Those who are income-eligible for Head Start have more choices available to them.
The Achievement Gap: A Genetic Issue? – Polite On Society
Thirty-five percent attend pre-K or kindergarten or receive full-time subsidized child care. The remainder receives care from relatives. At the end of the Eighties, the bulk of child-care spending funded Head Start. Beyond neglecting the role of these widespread personal and therefore altogether systemic prejudices in perpetuating the achievement gap, they fail to realize each of the factors they invoke is itself to a tremendous extent fueled by institutional racism.
The sociopathological culture that conservatives so often speak of is born from a system in which, among other things, Black families are deprived of constituent parents and children, both of whom the justice system deem unworthy of equitable judgment. Certainly, the fact that African Americans are in so many ways blocked from adopting the traits, identifiers, and possessions erroneously associated with whiteness contributes to the creation of this oppositional, backward, sociopathological Black identity the subject of a later chapter.
It is relieving that Secretary Paige and Dean Witty recognize that policy plays a role in creating the educational gap and can therefore effectuate solutions. But, like many policymakers, Paige and Witty are looking in the wrong places. Each of the dilemmas contained in the arguments enumerated in The Black-White Achievement Gap is largely a product of institutional racism.
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It says a lot for the invisibility of institutional racism in American society that we overlook not only its role in the perpetuation of the educational achievement gap, but also its role in the perpetuation of the rationales that we establish as causes for this universal void. Though Paige and Witty dismiss its merits, the argument of a genetic role in the achievement gap is not to be overlooked.
The details seem damning.
They are—for arguments holding race prejudice as anything but a predominant factor in engendering disparity. The trappings of elite status—posh prep or affluent public schools, tutors, and test prep courses—open doors for white students, but for all their might still fail to unfasten the Gordian knot racial bias ties around the double door handles at the detection of Black footsteps. It has been established that Black students get suspended and expelled at disproportionate rates, often for offenses that merit mediation or even medication for white students.
What may seem more surprising is that schools in affluent areas suspend and expel Black students at the highest rates. A study from Penn State University assessed over 60, schools in 6, districts and found that school districts in socioeconomically advantaged locales tended to favor policies that gave schools greater latitude over their own discipline policies. In disadvantaged areas, school boards tend to hold the power, typically setting uniform policies that are followed across schools with varying demographic constitutions.
The study found that race bias in discipline was far more prevalent in advantaged areas, in which school administrators were empowered to suspend or expel students at their own discretion.